Grammar and Usage


Lesson 4 (Level 1)

To Be Verb Definition and Usages

تدریس صوتی استاد

The verb "be"

The verbs "am, is, are, was, were, been" are called to be verbs.
To be verbs help us show state, form a tense, make question and turn a sentence into negative


She is happy. ( shows state)

The sky is cloudy. ( shows state)

He is working in a bank. (forms tense)

The students are playing football.. (forms tense)

Is he your classmate?. ( makes question)

are you looking for a job?. ( makes question)

they are not at home tomorrow. ( makes negative)

She is not going to school now. ( makes negative)


Subject + to be + Complement

The verb be follows the subject in the statements and links the Subject to the complement


Hamed is a techer.

She is a talented student.

You are a very good friend.

We are classmates at school.

They are good at swimming.

I am glad to see you.

To Be Verb Usages:

- To Be verb is used to show state or express facts like condition, location, type or color.
This type of verb "be" is called linking verb.

  • I am fine. (state)
  • You are very tired. (condition)
  • we are in Kabul. (location)
  • They are from Brazil. (location)
  • Hamed is an Engineer. (type)
  • She is a school girl. (type)
  • My car is black. (color)

- The "verb be" is used along with another verb to form a tense.
It's called auxiliary verb.

  • (present continues)
  • I am speaking on the phone.
  • She is traveling to Iran.
  • We are making a house.
  • (past continues)
  • I was coming home.
  • They were meeting in a cafe.
  • (perfect continues)
  • We have been learning English since 2020.


  • am

    I am an English Student.
    and I am also a football player

  • is

    Sara is a cook. she is from Herat
    Reza is an artist. He is a painter
    Kabul is a city. it is very nice

  • are

    You are my friend
    Hassib and Yaser are my friends, too.
    we are Muslims.

  • Grammar Exercise

    Grammar Exercise:

    Fill in the blanks with proper To Be Verbs

    خانه های خالی را با "فعل بودن" مناسب پرکنید
    1. Mahmood from Mazar he a driver.
    2. Mahmood and Hamed friends. they very happy.
    3. Hosna a teacher. her borther a police officer.
    4. I from Afghanistan. my country very beautiful.
    5. You a good friend. I very Happy with you.
    6. that my car, its color black.
    7. I and my friend go to course, we in class ten.
    8. Homaira an artist. she a film maker.
    9. I and you can speak English. we good classmates.

    Try the above exercise on your own first. see the answers only if you're unable to figure out the answers.
    See Answers

    Vocabulary and Phrases

    Words Meanings:

    English vocabulary
    1. there

    2. 👉   Kabul is a nice city. I worked (there) for ten years.

      👉   Are you looking for John? he is over (there).

    3. over

    4. 👉   I can jump (over) a stream but I cannot jump (over) a river.

      👉   Our school is (over) there. It's not too far from here.

    5. excuse me

    6. 👉   Excuse me, Can I have your phone number?

      👉   Would you excuse me for a moment? I have someone on the line.

    7. right

    8. 👉   Sara is your classmate, (right)?

      👉   He was (right) about the weather, it's going to be rainy tomorrow.

      👉   Once you arrive at the intersection, then turn to the (right) and go up.

    9. math

    10. 👉   I am not good at (math) but I like it a lot.

      👉   Roberto is a (math) teacher at school. He is very smart.

    11. focus

    12. 👉   In big games, the whole (focus) is on the star players.

      👉   only days before exam, we (focus) on our lessons.

    13. show

    14. 👉   Come with me! I want to (show) you something very interesting.

      👉   The smile on the face (shows) the happiness in the heart.

      👉   The God has (shown) us the right and wrong paths.

    15. state

    16. 👉   After start of public unrest, the government declared (state) of emergency.

      👉   during the winter there is a critical (state) for those who are left without shelters.

    17. form

    18. 👉   Our company will (form) a team of specialists to automate some of the work processes.

      👉   Digital currency is (forming) the future of money and commerce.

      👉   Online sales (form) a big part of digital stores revenue.

    19. artist

    20. 👉   In my opinion, Picasso has been the greatest (artist) of all time.

      👉   Only a professional artist can charm people with some type of majestical paintings.

    21. painter

    22. 👉   A (painter) could be someone who draws artistic paintings or someone who paints the walls.

      👉   Picasso was a painter. he left behind some majestical paintings that would bewilder anyone who views them

    23. with

    24. 👉   I go to university (with) my friends.

      👉   Ali lives (with) his family.

    25. maker

    26. 👉   My art teacher is a film (maker). He makes his films with a smart phone.

      👉   The (makers) of Jam minaret should have been very creative and artistic.

    27. classmate

    28. 👉   I learn English Online with and I speak and chat with my (classmates) on Telegram.

    Conversation and Homework

    Conversation, Listening & homework

    👉   Native Conversation and Homework 👈