Grammar and Usage

Lesson 12 (Level 1)

Article & Indefinite Article

تدریس صوتی استاد


What is an article?

Articles are used to indicate that we refer to, whether it is known to the hearer or unknow.

For example: if something is being seen, or already talked about, that is something definite (known) and if something is mentioned for the first time, that is something indefinite (unknown).

So, to indicate that something is known to the hearer we use definite article (the) and likewise to show that something is unknown we use indefinite articles (a, an) before the noun we talk about.


this is a book.(unknown: because the hearer doesn't know what type of book or whose book is it.)

I have an idea. (unknown: likewise It's not known to the hearer what the idea is about.)

I give the book to Ali. (known: so the books is being talked about before and the hearer knows what book.)

the sun is too far away. (known: surely everyone knows the sun. so the sun is known to the hearer.)

Indefinite Articles

We use indefinite article to tell the hearer that what we talk about is not known to him.


There is a cat in the garden.

She works in an organization.

please give me a pen.

They work in a shop.

The Indefinite Articles Are:

a - (used before singular and countable nouns that start with Consonant)

an (used before singular and countable nouns that start with Vowel)

English Vowels are: a - e - i - o - u; and the rest of letters are consonant.


This is an orange.

I have an iPhone.

She works in a restaurant.

They have a large house.

Note: indefinite articles are also used to show that something belongs to a particular type or class.

this is an English book.(what type of book?)
I have a plastic ball. (what type of material?)
Do you wear a uniform at school?. (what type of clothes?)

Definite Article (In Next Lessons)


  • a

    I have a book and a pen.
    I am just a teacher and not an especial person.
    these are apples and this is an orange

  • an

    she is an English student but he is a physics student
    that is an airplane and this is a bus
    Farid is an afghan but Haroon is an iranian

  • Grammar Exercise


    Fill in the blanks with proper Indefinite articles

    1. Ahmad is English teacher. he teaches English at course.
    2. Farid is afghan and Raja is indian.
    3. Hosna works in bank . she is cashier.
    4. they have black car and red motorcycle.
    5. Hamid and Saeed work in shop (فروشگاه). Hamid is observer and Saeed is sales person.
    6. my friend has big house, He is importer.
    7. my father is Engineer. he builds houses.
    8. my brother works for TV Channel . He is film maker.
    9. this is English book but that is Dari book.

    Try the above exercise on your own first. see the answers only if you're unable to figure out the answers.
    See Answers

    Vocabulary and Phrases

    Words Meanings:

    English vocabulary
    1. cell phone

    2. 👉   Nowadays almost everyone has a cell phone..

      👉   Susan received a new cell phone as a gift on her birthday.

    3. board

    4. 👉   Every student likes to write something on the board durin school.

      👉   We use a white board at our English class because it's cleaner and more effective in learning.

    5. bag

    6. 👉  NRC, DRC and UNICEF donate school bags to students that their family can't afford to buy.

      👉   Students carry their books in the bags.

    7. sound

    8. 👉   I can't study when the sound of TV is on or high.

      👉   Newer phones have really good sound quality.

    9. classroom

    10. 👉  Classrooms are the best place to learn and make friends.

      👉   We keep our classroom clean.

    11. dictionary

    12. 👉   If you want to learn English, You need to have an English dictionary.

      👉   Online dictionaries are some of the most visited sites on the internet.

    13. eraser

    14. 👉   There is always an eraser on the shelf of our whiteboard.

      👉   We sometime use paper as an eraser in our class.

    15. hairbrush

    16. 👉  I am going to buy a new hairbrush from eBay or Amazon.

    17. pencil case

    18. 👉  It's safer to put our pencils into a pencil case as it will protect them from damages.

    19. briefcase

    20. 👉   John always take a briefcase with himself to work.

      👉   He keeps his work documents and files in his briefcase.

    21. ID card

    22. 👉   Please show me you ID card.

      👉   The government is going to digitalize the ID cards.

    23. newspaper

    24. 👉   Newspapers are a good source of information for people.

      👉   New York Times is a newspaper. It was acquired by Amazon a couple of years ago.

    25. television

    26. 👉  The emerge of Television was accompanied with changes in people's life. some changes were good and some were harming.

      👉   We watch news and movies on Television

    27. stamp

    28. 👉  A sealed envelop has a stamp on it.

      👉   I got the notary stamp on my translated certificate.

    29. watch

    30. 👉   We are going to watch the football match of Chelsea and Liverpool tonight

      👉  My wife got me a watch as gift for my birthday.

    Conversation and Homework

    Conversation, Listening & homework

    👉   Native Conversation and Homework 👈