Grammar and Usage

Lesson 1 (Level 1)

Adjectives

تدریس صوتی استاد

Definition:

What is Adjective?


Adjective is a word that modifies a noun. adjectives are used singly or in a combination, to give information about size, shape, type, quality, material, or to express an idea.


Example:
this is a useful Website. (single use)
it has good English Lessons.(combination use)
they have a large house. (size)
we sit at a round table. (shape)
she has a difficult job.(quality)
It is an automatic car. (type)
We play with a plastic ball. (material)
Oh, It's a nice class. (idea)


Placement of Adjectives

Definition:

Placement of Adjectives

Before a noun   &   after a noun


Adjectives that are placed before a noun are called attributive adjectives, which describe the noun.


Example:

There is a black cat in the garden. (attributive)

My friend is an English teacher (attributive)

He is a tall man and a good friend, too. (attributive)


When Adjectives are placed after a noun they are called predicative adjectives.
predicative adjectives are linked to the noun (subject) by a linking verb.


Example:

The cat in the garden is black. (predicative)

He looks happy today. (predicative)

My friends are kind and friendly. (predicative)

I am fine. (predicative)

She sounds native american. (predicative)



Linking Verbs

Linking verbs connect the subject of the sentence to an adjective, to give more information about the subject.

All forms of to be verb are linking verbs;

be, am, is, are, was, were, would be, have been, etc

"sound, look, seem, feel, become, taste, appear" are also linking verbs.


Example:

I am happy

He is fine

They are funny and interesting

It was ok

we were scared

They sound angry with you.

You look fantastic .

She appears brave in her job.

The food tastes spicy .

I feel sick today.

He seems shy .




Examples:

  • Attributive Adjectives (Adjective Before Noun)

    There is an apple tree in our garden. there are also some beautiful flowers and fruitful large trees.

    Amazon.com is a very big online store. it sells cheap and expensive items. You can find new or used camera, laptop, phone or TVs for a really good price.

    China is a really big country. It has the biggest economy in the world. some of the world's largest technology companies such as Lenova, Huawei, Tp-link and Alibaba.com are located in China.

    Apple is a leading technology company. it makes smartphones, laptops and smart watches. Apple iOS and Android are the two biggest rivals in Smartphone operating systems.

    Alibaba.com is a Chines trading platform. People can sell their items in this online market. some of the most famous items on this platform are Laptops, TVs, refrigerators and communication technologies.

  • Predicative Adjectives ( Adjectives After Linking Verb)

    Online Learning courses are very useful. Their lessons are up-to-date. and their prices are low and affordable.

    Coursera.com is an Online learning platform. its courses are fantastic..

    The weather is really good, today. the trees look shiny and beautiful. The city sounds calm and the people seems happy and enjoying.

    Our favourite football team played nice and energetic, today. the trees look shiny and beautiful. The city sounds calm and the people seems happy and enjoying.

  • Grammar Exercise

    Exercise:

    Choose the correct placement of adjectives (attributive or predicative)

    نوعیت صفات در جملات ذیل را انتخاب کنید(توصیقی یا خبری)
    1. The book on the table is English.

    2. The black cat is in the garden.

    3. The cat in the garden is black.

    4. the weather is rainy today.

    5. Sara gifts her sister a nice phone.

    6. She looks nice but she doesn't feel happy.

    Vocabulary and Phrases

    Words Meanings:

    English vocabulary
    1. nice

    2. 👉   I have a (nice) car.

      👉   It's (nice) to meet you.

    3. meet

    4. 👉   I would like to (meet) you this afternoon, John.

      👉   She wants to (meet) some of her friends. they are going to (meet) each other at a cafe.

    5. again

    6. 👉   If you fail at something, try (again) and (again) until you make success.

      👉   It was nice to meet you my friend. can we meet (again) next week?.

    7. too

    8. 👉   Hamed is an athlete and he is a taxi driver, (too).

      👉   It was nice to meet you, (too).

    9. sorry

    10. 👉   I am (sorry). I cannot talk to you right now.

      👉   Oh, (sorry) I didn't mean to hurt you.

    11. popular

    12. 👉   Rashed Khan is from Afghanistan. He is a (popular) cricket player.

      👉   KabulEnglish is a (popular) online English class. It teaches English for free.

      👉   Barcelona and Real Madrid are the two most (popular) football teams of the world.

    13. both

    14. 👉   Barcelona and Real Madrid are (both) from Spain. they compete each other at E-Classic every year.

      👉   (both), my sister and my brother are university students. they study science and literature.

    15. male

    16. 👉   There is a (male) restroom over there.

      👉   (males) are the dominant work force and they are more skilled and experienced.

    17. female

    18. 👉   both male and (female) should be allowed to work in this country.

      👉   (female) workers are cheaper but they work very well.

    19. pair

    20. 👉   I want to buy a (pair) of shoes for my daughter. she is going to school this year.

      👉   Students learn better when they study and practice in (pair).

    21. introduce

    22. 👉   My students can (introduce) themselves in English. they are now at level two.

      👉   I am sorry. I forgot to (introduce) myself. I am Ali from Afghanistan.

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