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Table Of Lessons

  • Adjective is a word that modifies a noun. adjectives are used singly or in a combination, to give information about size, shape, type, quality, material or idea.
  • Adjectives that are placed before a noun are called attributive adjectives, which describe the noun.
  • When Adjectives are placed after a noun they are called predicative adjectives. predicative adjectives are linked to the noun (subject) by a linking verb.
  • Linking verbs connect the subject of the sentence to an adjective, to give more information about the subject.
    All forms of to be verb are linking verbs;
    be, am, is, are, was, were, would be, have been, etc
    "sound, look, seem, feel, become, taste, appear" are also linking verbs.
  • Possessive adjectives are placed before noun to show possession. Possessive adjectives help us express who something belongs to. For example: "This is my book.", here the word my is a possessive adjective and it indicates that the "book" belongs to "me".
  • Possessive Adjectives are always placed before a noun to show who possesses something or has it. For example: "Ali is my brother". The word " my " in this sentence is possessive adjective and the word "brother" is a noun. therefore, the possessive adjective is place before noun.
  • Possessive Pronouns are used alone or in place of a noun to show possession. Possessive Pronouns show ownership and stops the noun's repetition.
  • For example: "This is a book. It's mine.", here the word mine is a possessive Pronoun which replaces the "book" and shows its owner.
  • WH-Questions are words that start with Wh and ask for certain types of information about people, place, time, reason and so on. Wh questions cannot be answered with Yes or No.
  • Wh-questions are placed at the beginning of a sentence and followed by an auxiliary verb.
  • "What" is used to ask for information about something
    Example:
    What is your name?
    What can I do for you?
  • "How" is used to ask for information about manner, condition or quality
    Example:
    How are you?
    How was your exam?
    How good is your English?
  • The verbs "am, is, are, was, were, been" are called to be verbs. To be verbs help us show state, form a tense, make question and turn a sentence into negative
  • She is happy. ( shows state)
    The sky is cloudy. ( shows state)
    He is working in a bank. (forms tense)
    The students are playing football.. (forms tense)
    Is he your classmate?. ( makes question)
    are you looking for a job?. ( makes question)
    they are not at home tomorrow. ( makes negative)
    She is not going to school now. ( makes negative)
  • The verb be follows the subject in the statements and links the Subject to the complement
  • Example:
    Hamed is a techer.
    She is a talented student.
    You are a very good friend.
    We are classmates at school.
    They are good at swimming.
    I am glad to see you.
  • The verb be is a helping verb and therefore, It can make a sentence question and negative.
  • The verb be is used to turn a sentence into question. Note: To turn a sentence into question we simply move the verb be to the start of the sentence and add a question mark (?) at the end.
  • I am from Afghanistan. (statement)
    Am I from Afghanistan? (question)
  • The verb be is used to make a sentence negative. Note: To make a sentence negative we simply add not after the verb be.
    I am a driver. (statement)
    I am not a driver. (negative)
  • Noun is a word for naming people, place and things. words like "Ahmad, morning, car, flower, happiness, anger" are all nouns.
  • Nouns are generally of two categories. "Concrete Noun " and " Abstract noun "
  • Pronoun is a word that replaces the noun (and stops the repetition of noun)
  • A noun or pronoun can be the subject or object in the sentence.
    Subject is the doer of an action and is placed at the beginning of a sentence
  • Object is the receiver of an action. Object and Object pronouns are placed after the verb or preposition
  • Example:
    He calls Mahmood. (after verb)
    Sara invites him to the party. (after verb)
    Hamed and Mahmood play football. (after verb)
    They play with each other. (after preposition)
    I go to a bank. (after preposition)
    I work in it. (after preposition)
  • Object Pronoun is a word that replaces the Object (and stops its repetition)
  • The "noun" or "pronoun" that follows a preposition is called prepositional object . For example: John travels to France. here "John" is the subject, "travels" is the main verb, "to" is the preposition and "France" is the prepositional object.
  • Direct object is the main person or thing which an action is carried upon, or in other word, direct object is the main recipient of an action.
    For example: John makes a house. here "John" is the subject, "makes" is the verb and "house" is the direct object of the verb.
  • We can find the direct object by putting the question words "what" or "who(m)" after the main verb. the "answer" will be the direct object.
  • John builds what?
    John builds a house.
    Alice calls whom?
    Alice calls Steven.
    Please open what?
    please open the door.
  • We can find the indirect object by putting the question words "for whom" or "for what" after the direct object.
    Example:
    John builds a house
    - for whom?.
    John builds Sara a house.
    Alice brings a gift
  • prepositions are words that show the relationship between a noun or pronoun and another word.
  • For example: there is a box and some keys. so to show how these two are linked or what is their relation, we use prepositions.
  • Example:
    The keys are in the box. The keys are in front of the box. The keys are behind the box. The keys are on the box. The keys are next to the box. The keys are under the box.
  • Prepositions always take an object and so the noun or pronoun that follows the prepositions is the object of preposition and is called prepositional object.
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  • Demonstratives are words like "this, that, these, those, here, there" which indicate the location of something in relation to the speaker.
  • The words "this, that, these, those" when they are placed before a noun are called demonstrative adjectives
  • This - Points to a near and singular Noun
    That - Points to far and singular Noun
    These - Points to near and plural Nouns
    Those - Points to far and plural Nouns
  • demonstrative pronouns are used instead of a noun to point to the person or thing that we talk about.
    Adverbs are used to make emphasis and so the words "here, there" are demonstrative adverbs which emphasize the location of something in relation to the speaker.
  • Articles are used to indicate that we refer to, whether it is known to the hearer or unknow.
  • For example: if something is being seen, or already talked about, that is something definite (known) and if something is mentioned for the first time, that is something indefinite (unknown).
  • So, to indicate that something is known to the hearer we use definite article (the) and likewise to show that something is unknown we use indefinite articles (a, an) before the noun we talk about.
  • We use indefinite article to tell the hearer that what we talk about is not known to him.
  • Articles are used to indicate that we refer to, whether it is known to the hearer or unknown.
  • We use definite article to tell the hearer that what we talk about is known to him.
  • Example:
    This is the cat we saw yesterday.
    Where is the teacher?
    Hamed builds a house. the house is there.
  • Note: definite article also indicates that:
    - something is mentioned before.
    - something is unique.
    - something is general.
    - something is superlative.
  • To Be verb is used to construct short answers with "yes" and "no" questions.
  • Am I a good friend for you? Yes, You are.
    Are you a fan of cricket? No, I am not.
    Are we in the same class? Yes, we are.
    Are they from Afghanistan? No, they are not.
    Is she a student? Yes, she is.
    Is he a taxi driver? No, He is not.
    Is it cold in the winter Yes, It is.
  • The verb be is contracted as follow in the statements.
  • I am = I'm
    you are = you're
    we are = we're
    they are = they're
    he is = he's
    she is = she's
    it is = it's
  • What + Be + Subject + like ? is used to ask for description of someone or something such as appearance, character and behavior.
  • What is Hashim like ?
    What are your friends like ?
    What is kabul like ?
  • Asking for description of People: What is John like ?
    He's tall and a bit talkative
    What is Sara like ?
    She's kind and quiet.
    What are Hamed and Farid like ?
    They are funny and they are smart, too.
  • Asking for description of Place:
    What is Kabul like ?
    It's nice but it's very crowded.
    What is Tokyo like ?
    It's big, crowded and it's really nice.
    What is your school like ?
    It's small. it only has four classes. but it's very nice.
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  • How to ask for something's owner?
  • Interactive Grammar Exercise
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  • What are possessive pronouns and how are they used?
  • Interactive Grammar Exercise
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  • how to show possession with apostrophe s?
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  • What is tense and how to express an ongoing action using continues tense?
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  • How to add ing in present continues tense?
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  • what are conjunction and how are they used?
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  • Different ways we can state the time
  • what are parts of the day?
  • Interactive Time Exercise
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  • a complete introduction to time phrases and parts of the day
  • what are parts of the day and how to express them?
  • Interactive Time Exercise
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  • How to use wh-questions in present continues tense?
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  • An English story for reading and understanding
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