04-09-2021 Ahmad Hussaini

Getting started with the basics of English [ part - 1 ]

getting started with basics of english

How and where to start learning English as an elementary student of English?
In this article we are going to lay out the steps for getting started with learning English.
English language despite its tricky usages, has a good and well defined rules. Parts of speech, for example is a good structural introduction of this language.
having a clear road map for learning English language can help us avoid confusion and make effective progress.
below are the first top steps to begin learning with.

1. Learn how to describe something, give your idea and show possession using adjectives

Adjectives are descriptive words that add more meaning to the noun. adjectives can be used singly or in a combination (e.g. black cat, big black cat). Adjectives are used to give information about size, shape, type, quality, material or to express an idea.

KabulEnglish is a useful website. (single use)
it has good English Lessons.(combination use)
Russia is a large country. (size)
The sun has a round shepe. (shape)
English is an easy language.(quality)
I have a smart phone. (type)
It has a plastic cover. (material)
Oh, nice car! Is it yours? (idea)

Possessive Adjectives are those which we use to show possession. they are placed before a noun and tell us who something belongs to. they are: My, Your, Our, Their, His, Her, Its

my name is Ali
what is your name ?
this is her book

👉   Learn Adjective and Possessive Adjectives with more details along with examples and exercise

2. How to ask questions using Wh-questions?

Wh-questions help us ask questions that require information. they are: What, How, When, Where, Who, Whose, Why.

what is your job?
where do you come from?
who is your brother?
when is her wedding?

👉   Learn Wh-question in details along with examples and online exercise

3. How to make questions and negatives using Auxiliary verb "Be"?

The Auxiliary verb Be can have a lot of usages such as showing state, forming tense, making a sentence question or negative.
"Be" is the base form and it is conjugated to "am, is, are" in present tense.

They are football players. ( showing state )
Today, It is sunny. ( showing state )
We are speaking English. ( forming tense )
He is fixing the car. ( forming tense )

👉   Learn the Verb Be in details along with examples and online exercise

4. forming a question and turning a sentence into negative with verb "Be".

The Auxiliary verb Be can make a sentence question and turn a sentence into negative.
Most of our daily conversations happen with help of verb "be". to turn a sentence into question we simply move the verb be to the beginning of the sentence and to make a sentence negative, we add not after the verb "be".

Example of Questions with "Be":

She is a politician. (statement)
Is she a politician? (question)
They are classmates and friends. (statement )
Are they classmates and friends? (question)
They are Afghan businessmen. (statement )
Are they popular businessmen? (question )

Example of Negative with "Be":

I am not good at playing football. (Negative)
She is not from India. (Negative)
They are not my classmates. (Negative)
We are not angry with each other. (Negative)

👉   Learn "Questions and Negative with Be" in details plus examples and online exercise

5. What is a noun and how to replace it with pronoun?

Noun is word that we use for someone or something in order to identify or differentiate one from another.
Noun can be single word like "Car" or a combination of words like "Electric Car" and so on.
repeating a noun throughout our conversation can be boring, so to avoid that we use pronoun.
Pronouns are shorter words that replace a noun. a noun can be the subject of the sentence or the object.
Subject and subject pronouns are those which are used at the start of a sentence or in other words they are used to replace the doer of an action
on the other hand, Object and Object pronouns are used instead of object or the receiver of an action in the sentence.

Examples of Noun:

Dawood is a student
Dawood and his sister Sara are classmates
Sara and Dawood live in Kabul
my father walks to work every morning
I was born in winter

Examples of Pronouns:

Hadi is my classmate. He is a smart student.
Our class is big. it has four windows.
I like the flower. it is very nice.
My brother and I live in Herat. it is a nice city.

👉   Learn Noun and Pronouns in detail along with examples and online exercise

6. What is object and how to use object pronouns?

Object is someone or something that we talk about or whom an action is carried upon. Object is the receiver of an action and therefore it usually follows the verb in the sentence.
Object Pronouns are words usually short that replace the object in the sentence.
They are me, you, us, them, him, her, it
Note:  Object is placed after a verb or preposition.

Examples of Object and Object pronouns:

He calls Mahmood. (after verb)
Sara invites him to the party. (after verb)
Hamed and Mahmood play football. (after verb)
They play with each other. (after preposition)
I go to a bank. (after preposition)
I work in it. (after preposition)
I see Mahmood everyday. I see him everyday.
she teaches students at school. she teaches them at school.
we like our country very much. we like it very much.
they help their parents at home . they help them at home.

👉   Learn object and object Pronouns in detail along with examples and online exercise

7. Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns

Demonstrative Adjectives are placed before a noun and points to the person or thing that we talk about. they show if the person or the thing is singular or plural, far or near.
Demonstrative adjectives are "this, that, these, those"

Examples of Demonstrative Adjectives:

This car is very expensive.
That boy is my friend.
These students are from kabul.
Those teachers are very kind.

Demonstrative Pronouns are used instead of noun and show whom or what we talk about. demonstrative pronouns can also show if the person or the thing we talk about is singular or plural, far or near.
Demonstrative pronouns are "this, that, these, those"

Examples of Demonstrative Pronouns:

This is very expensive.
That is my friend.
These are from kabul.
Those are very kind.

👉   Learn Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns in detail along with examples and online exercise

8. how to tell our audience that what we talk about is known to him or unknown?

articles are of the key parts of every sentence that we make in our conversations daily. what we talk about is either known (definite) or unknown (indefinite) to our audience. therefore, articles are used to show that.
there are two types of articles. 1. definite article and 2. indefinite article
definite article is placed before a noun and tells the hearer that what we talk about is known to him.
There is only one definite article and that is "the".

Examples of definite article:

the sun is too far away. (known)
I give the book to Ali. (known)
I have a car. the car is black. (known)
The people are protesting the government. (known)

👉   Learn more about definite articles here

indefinite articles , on the other hand, tells the hearer that what we talk about is not known (definite) to him.
"a" and "an" are indefinite articles. "a" is used before singular nouns that start with consonant letters and "an" is used before singular nouns that start with vowel letters.

Examples of indefinite articles:

this is a book.(unknown)
I have an idea. (unknown)
There is a car on the street. (unknown)
Give me a pen. (unknown)

👉   Learn indefinite articles here along with examples and online exercise

9. how to show the position or the relation of one thing to another?

Prepositions are words which show the relationship of one thing to another, for example where one thing is located in regard to another thing.
words like "on, in, over, out, at, to, before, after, in front of, across from, next to" are prepositions

Examples of prepositions:

The car is on the street
Our school is in front of the bank
The bank is across from our school
the cat is under the tree
the bird is on the tree
Sara and Hamed are at home.
The sky is above our head
The sun is in the sky.

👉   Learn Prepositions along with examples and online exercise

10. How well have you learned so far? take this test to find out

Reviews and tests are good ways to assess our understanding and recall what we might have forgotten.
In this Review/Test you will take multiple choice questions of grammar, jumbled sentences to test your structure knowledge, blanks and vocabulary exercise tests to examine your word power.

👉   Test Your English Knowledge of Grammar and vocabulary with this Review/Test

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