22-07-2021 Ahmad Hussaini

A complete introduction to parts of speech

In grammar term, the word "speech" refers to all set of words or sentences that we make when we talk, and this "speech" is made up of some components that are called "Parts of speech".
Generally, there are nine parts for our speech. each part is a word or set of words that is put into a category based on its syntactic functions in the sentence.


An introduction to parts of Speech in English

To start a conversation we need to talk about something, and that thing needs to have a name in order to be referred to or identified as. this is where "Noun" comes into play.


1. Noun

Noun is a designated word by which we call a person, place or thing.
For noun, in general there are two categories. Abstract Noun and Concrete Noun.
abstract nouns are for those things that don't have a physical existence but rather they have conceptual or meaning aspects such as "kindness, anger, love, beauty".
Concrete nouns, on the other hand, are used for naming the things that have external physical existence. for example: "tree, sun, home, eye"


Our conversations are mostly around the noun. and so it seems quite boring to repeat the name all across our speech, especially when nouns are compound and made up of several words.
so to avoid this, we use "Pronouns".


2. Pronoun

Pronouns are short words that replace the noun in the sentence, and stops the noun's repitition (e. g. "Hamed is an English teacher. he teaches at school" here the word "He" is a pronoun that replaces "Hamed")

there are several pronouns in English but the two most used set of them are Subject Pronouns and Object Pronouns

Subject Pronouns are those which usually start the sentence and they are the doer of an action. subject pronouns are "I, You, We, They, He, She, It".
Object Pronouns are those which come at the end of a sentence. Object is the person or thing that an action is carried upon or talked about. Object pronouns are "me, you, us, them, him, her, it"

To say that something is good or bad, black or white, small or large, or to talk about something's quality, material or state we use "Adjective".


3. Adjective

Adjectives are words that help us describe someone or something (e. g. "He is fine" here the word "fine" is an adjective which tell us how his state is.)

There are several types of adjectives. such as Interrogative Adjectives, Possessive Adjectives, Descriptive Adjectives, Proper Adjectives and more.
Follow this link to learn about nine of the most common types of adjectives in English.


A noun or pronoun can be of different natures or states, but to know whether its known or unknown, single or plural, far or near, countable or non-countable, or even who it belongs to, we use "Determiners"


4. Determiner

Determiners as their name suggests are words that make the state of a noun clear. such as definite article that tells us the noun is known or indefinite articles which indicate the noun is not known to us.
furthermore, demonstrative adjectives points whether something is far or near, single or plural. and possessive adjectives which are also determiners tell us who possesses the thing we talk about.


In order to form a sentence or to put a group of words into a sentence to convey a message we need a "verb"


5. Verb

verb is word that expresses what action is carried out or what is the state of someone or something.
for example: "She opened the door" this sentence is formed around the verb "open", and this verb tells us what happened. and likewise the verb "is" in the sentence "he is happy" forms the sentence by showing the time and state of the subject.
follow this link to learn more about verb as a lexical and auxiliary verb

For answering the questions how often something happens, to which extent does it happen, does it happen fast or slow, what time or at which position? we use "Adverbs".


6. Adverb

Adverb is a word that describes an a verb, adjective or even another adverb.

  • they tell us how an action happens (e. g. "He plays football well". the word "well" is an adverb of manner)
  • They tell us when an action happened (e. g. "we had a party last night". the phrase "last night" is an adverb of time)
  • They tell us about the place of an action (e. g. "I looked for you everywhere". the word "everywhere" is an adverb of place)
  • They tell us about the degree or intensity of an action (e. g. "the car crashed violently". the word "violently" is an adverb of degree)
  • They tell us how often an action happens (e. g. "They sometimes go swimming". the word "sometimes" is an adverb of frequency)

follow this link to learn more about Adverbs and some of their usages

Using sentences singly and without cohesively connecting them together wouldn't make a good logical sense. therefore, we use "conjunction" to join sentences and to make a coherent and meaningful paragraph.

7. Conjunction

Conjunctions are words like "and, but, or, so, because" that connect two words or sentences. they help us make sentences complex and meaningful.

For example: “Sami and Haroom” in this phrase the word and is a conjunction that joins two words. and likewise the word "but" is a conjunction in the compound sentence "I like football but I don't like to play it".

Conjunctions are generally of two types: Coordinating conjunctions and Subordinating Conjunctions.

  • Coordinating Conjunctions join to words or clauses that are equal. they are "and, but, or, so, for, yet, nor".

    for example: "Ali and Reza". "I am a teacher but She is a manager"

  • Subordinating Conjunctions join an independent clause to the main clause. and Independent clause can not make a complete sense on its own. therefore, it's joined to the main clause using a subordinate conjunction. they are "since, for, because, that, though" and more.

    example: "I have a car though it's old". "He travels to Kabul because he is called".

8. Prepositions

Prepositions are words that show the relation between to objects. they show how something is related to another thing in terms of position.
some of the most used preposition are "of, to, in, at,next to, near, before, after, between, behind, among and ..."
prepositions always have an object and that is the noun which follows it.

For example: “Hamed is at school. in this sentence, the word "at" is a preposition and the word"school" is the object of it. and likewise the word "next to" in "Our school is next to the park" and "to" in the sentence " I go to school everyday" are all prepositions.

follow this link to learn more about Prepositions, their usages along with exercise


9. Interjection

Interjection are short word that show our emotion. they are of no grammatical value and are not connected to the sentence. Interjections are usually followed by an exclamation mark (!)
Some of the most used English interjections are: "Oh, ouch, alas, wow, um, uh, hi, hey"

Examples:
Oh! I forgot my wallet.
Ah! that feels good .
Hi! what's up?.
wow! that was really amazing.

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